Sometimes, cave bear femora show smaller round–oval tooth marks, or on the shaft ends only half of the puncture mark is on the margin (e.g. 'Neanderthal flutes' were actually snacks for Ice Age hyenas The Divje Babe flute is believed to be one of the earliest examples of a musical instrument. © 2015 The Authors. The ‘bear’ essentials: actualistic reserach on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for palaeontology and archaeology, The sound paradox. tooth with intact crown tip); (b) round surface breakages of compacta, i.e. Brodar  reported cave bear cub femora and other cave bear bones ‘with holes’ as further proof of the ‘oldest instruments in the world’ from the Mokriška Jama Cave (or Medvedja Jama Cave=Bear Cave), Slovenia. Fossile Knochendurchlochungen. Also, possibly most herbivorous small U. s. eremus and full herbivorous U. ingressus (e.g. New research shows that the ‘flute’ is actually just a bone that’s been gnawed on by a hyena (it’s unlikely that the hyena used it as a flute). Mokriška jama, nova visokoalpska aurignaška postaja v Jugoslaviji. : X-ray computed microtomography of the Divje Babe flute. ) restudy of the bone excluded Ice Age hyenas, arguing with ‘abnormal biting or chewing behaviour using their canine teeth’ (cf. Adult femora have no puncture marks, because those directly flaked into pieces.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. This was a smaller cave bear and Ice Age spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) carnivore den which overlaps with another Aurignacian camp site, but again, it has no Middle Palaeolithic Neanderthal occupation signs (cf. I guess that it's not surprising that there's rather a lot of uncertainty regarding Neanderthal artifacts. A skull cap was first discovered, followed by two femurs, five arm bones, part of the left pelvis, and fragments of a shoulder blade and ribs. partly with spiral breakage, and tooth mark impact marks on the surfaces from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany (PAL collection). The results indicate that 'Neanderthal bone flutes' do not show marks made by stone drills, but rather, the circular holes are the result of Ice Age hyenas’ teeth, which were strong enough to puncture the soft bones of juvenile bears. All former archaeological, ecological focus cave bear ‘bone flute’ studies forgot all four cave bear predators—steppe lions (Panthera leo spelaea), leopards (Panthera pardus spelaea), Ice Age spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) and Ice Age wolves (Canis lupus spelaeus)—which are known now to be cave bear killers, and main consumers in mountain regions, where mammoth steppe megafauna were absent [4,18–21]. Cave bear hunting in the Hohle Fals, a cave site in the Ach Valley, Swabian Jura. These early humans fashioned flutes out of vulture bones and mammoth ivory about 40,000 years ago. Even the puncture marks in the upper shaft area are visible, demonstrating the scavenging/bone cracking activities also in the Divje Babe Cave 1, similar to that found in German caves (cf. Die oberpleistozäne Population von Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller 1794 aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland). This was a larger cave bear den (cf. Experimental manufacture of the bone flute of with stone tools. Also the figure of bone crushing by Turk et al. Sixteen carefully aligned holes dot the surface of the six-foot-long tusk. A critical re-evaluation on bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore interactions through a multivariate approach: application to the FLK Zinj archaeofaunal assemblage (Olduvai George, Tanzania). Slovenia [ ] neanderthal bone flute was a larger cave bear cub femora, both with tooth hole! 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